The Language which this Grammar proposes to teachwas originally a dialect, peculiar to a small district in Ger. It began first to rise into notice, at the time of the Reformation ; but, since the sixteenth century, it has been cultivated in different pro vinces, and ultimately adopted, as their common tongue, by all. It is become the language of literature, and of general gleichklang partnervermittlung test ; whereas the remaining idioms are confined to the colloquial intercourse of the inhabitants of the different provinces, and even there, in a considerable degree, excluded from the use of the well-educated and higher classes.
High German is the language of the whole nationand mustby preference, be understood, when The German is mentioned. It is my designin the following pages, briefly to exhibit the history of this dialect, and to say a few words on its na ture and properties. The province, formerly known by the name of the Electo rate of Saxony, was the place that gave it birth.
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The Franconians eventually became the mas ters of the country, and as such introduced their language. But it experienced some change, by being communicated to the prior inhabitants. Their tongue, like that of other Sla vonic tribes, was probably soft and harmonious ; and wouldto a certain degree, impart these qualities to any single vilsbiburg lan guage, with which it might come in collision.
The dialect of Franconia belongs to those of Upper or Southern Germany, which are allmore or less, spoken with broadguttural, and hissing sounds. They differ, in this respect, from the pronun elbe rustic 36 single sink vanity of Lower or Northern Germanywhich is smooth and fluent.
But the idiomformed in the Electorate of Saxonybe sides that admixture of softness, derived from the Slavonians, was also tempered by the intercoursewhich the people of that district maintained with other parts of Germany. Their in dustryand superior civilizationbrought them into contact with numerous strangers, whose customs and language, to a mannercertain degree, mingled with their own. In this much of the original roughness of the Upper German was worn away ; and the High German modelled into a formbetter calculated for the purposes of literatureand conversa tionthan its predecessor the Upper German.
Germany, and occupied different parts of that country ; among others, the district in question.
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This district borders upon Bo hemiawhere the mass of the population is Slavonic, and where, to this day, a pure Slavonic dialect is spoken. In my journey through Bohemiain elbe rustic 36 single sink vanity SpringI was much struck with that language, the sounds of which are so soft and harmonious, that I do not hesitate to say, they rival those of the Italian. The Emperor Henry I, a prince of distinguished merit, did much for the internal improvement of Germany ; it was in his time that the colony alluded to was settled in Saxony.
History of the High German. It is by that appellation, discrimi nated from the Low Germanwhich is the native language of the northern parts of Germany. But the name seems to have been chiefly assigned in opposition to the Low Germanbecause that new dialect appertained to a elbe rustic 36 single sink vanity situated higher up, that is to saymore to the south. In this manner there ex isted, about the time of the Reformation, three grand divi sions of the German languageviz.
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I Previously to that eramost literary productions, composed in the German tonguewere written in the Upper German elbe rustic 36 single sink vanity, which was the vehicle of literature throughout the country. Pomerania and Brandenburgh. Along the Baltic coast the Slavonic language long prevailed.
Hochdeutsch, signifying High Germanis pronounced Hoch Doitch. This is sometimes erroneously renderedin English, by High Dutch, a mistake which must have arisen from the similarity of the words Deutsch and Dutch ; though they are es sentially different in meaning, the former denoting German, and the latter Hollandish.
The Bible, and other works of high interestat that periodpublished in this dialect, and the number of protestant divines who issued from Saxonytended to make it knowneven in remoter places.
It was read and under stood in every provinceandby degrees, cultivated as the general language of all Germany. It drove the Upper Ger man from that preeminence, which it had hitherto occupied, andin its steadpossessed itself of the fields of literature and science. The Low German was, at no time, much employed in writing ; though this idiomif it had been attended tomight perhaps have produced a language, for softness and TOM harmony, far superior to the two others.
It has, since it is generally come into use, received improvements from all quartersand is no longer to be considered in the light, in which it first appeared.
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The Upper German, therefore, was the lan guage of the court ; —this was one reason. The vicinity of France and Italy gave to the southern provinces of Germany, at the revival of letters, a great advantage over the north, and they made early attempts in literary compositions. This was another circumstance that favored the Upper German. Character and Properties of the High German. By this observation we ought to be guidedwhen we determine the questionin which parts the best Germanthat is to saythe best High Germanis to be met with.
It will not satisfy usafter the foregoing considerationsto be toldthat we must look for example and authority to the prac tice of that district, from which it derived its origin.
- Кстати, как ты знаешь, в английском языке местоимением "он" пользуются и когда пол неизвестен.
- Николь слышала возню Ричарда в ванной.
- Даже Никки еще не забыла человекоподобных биотов, оставшихся в Новом Эдеме, поэтому в первую очередь детей интересовали Альберт Эйнштейн, Авраам Линкольн и Бенита Гарсиа, а не исторические и мифические персонажи, с которыми дети только знакомились.
- Тогда я не смогла уснуть до тех пор, пока не сумела, наконец, убедить себя в том, что погиб он не по моей вине".
- Он протолкнул ее кресло на один из движущихся тротуаров, и они оставили центр станции.
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This cannot be logically admitted ; but whatever, in case of doubt, may be decided by the rules and analogy of general grammar, must inevitably be acknowledged as paramount to the influ ence of any local custom ; and that province ought certainly to be thought to possess the German in its greatest perfection and purity, which the least deviates from these rulesand this analogy.
It wasfor a long time, taken for granted that the High German was best spoken in that part of the countrycom monly called Upper Saxony, andespeciallyat Meissen and Dresden.
And that must have been trueat its origin and first progress. But as soon as the language was fa miliarized in the other provinces, there arose a possibility that it might, in its advancement, meet with a set of people, out of its native district, whofrom particular circumstances, would be able to do it more justice than those, to whom it owed its primary existence.
Such a chance was afforded it among the inhabitants of Lower Saxony ; whofrom the fa vorable disposition of their organs of speechwere better qualified to singles pinkafeld the dictates of general rule and analogy, than any of their neighbors. It would then of necessity hap penthat if there were instances in which the Upper Saxons violated the rules of general analogywhen the Lower Saxons were capable of observing themthe latter must, in those in stances, have the preference.
In drawing a comparison between the pretensions of the Upper and Lower Saxons, it is my wish to act with the ut most fairnessaccording to the preceding observations ; I shalltherefore, enumerate the principal faults of both com petitorswhich will lead to such a result, as may enable the foreigner to draw his own conclusion.
The errors of the Upper Saxons are these : 1. The hard sounds, in general, prevail. B is pronounced by them like P, D like T, and G like K. But it is a grievous defect!
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Baum is metamorphosed into Paum, Buch into Puch, Ball into Pall. In the same man ner, they speak ter, tie, tas, for der, die, das; tienen for die nen ; tumm for dumm. Thus they substitute K for G, and say Kott instead of Gott, kehen instead of gehen. The hissing aspiration like the English sh which is given to the letter S before elbe rustic 36 single sink vanity and t, especially in the begin ning of words, I consider as the second objection.
- Спросила Наи.
- У Орла есть более важные дела.
- А теперь, капитан Бауэр, - проговорила она с внезапным акцентом, - снимайте одежду и ложитесь на спину.
- Насколько бы переменилась вся наша история, если бы они добрались до нашей планеты.
- Увы, придется подождать, поглядеть, что будет".
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Stehen ,I for example, is made to sound like shtehen ; sprechen like shprechen ; Durst like Dursht. To stand. Pronunciation of the Upper Saxons.
They pronounce both alike, namely, as the ee of the English ; but ü should be sounded very differently, as will be shown, when we speak of this letter.